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He xii nucleus of antagonists of -adrenergic and serotonergic receptors are necessary and sufficient to eliminate the rem sleep¨clike depression of xii motoneuronal activity elicited by pontine carbachol injections. buy viagra for women The effect was reversible and selective in that the carbachol-induced depression of xii nerve activity was abolished, whereas other rem sleep¨clike changes, such as the cortical and hippocampal activations and slowing of the respiratory rate, remained intact. buy viagra for women The most parsimonious explanation of this result is that the adrenergic and serotonergic receptor antagonists injected into the xii nucleus removed aminergic excitation from xii motoneurons. viagra without prescription By doing so, they preempted the ability of pontine carbachol to exert its effects because they acted through the same disfacilitatory mechanism that would otherwise occur during the rem sleep¨clike depression of xii motoneuronal activity. Accordingly, we propose that, at least in the carbachol model used, a combined withdrawal from motoneurons of adrenergic and serotonergic effects is the main cause of the rem sleep¨clike suppression of their activity. buy viagra online     urethane-anesthetized rat as a model of neural phenomena of rem sleep     pontine carbachol injections have been extensively used to study rem sleep (15, 24). cheap generic viagra As this and other studies show, 5- to 20-nl carbachol injections into a discrete site within the dorsal pontine tegmentum of urethane-anesthetized rats can repeatedly activate neural events similar to those characterizing natural rem sleep (15, 16, 21). viagra for sale in canada The effects of carbachol last 3 to 4 min and include activation of the cortical eeg, appearance of rhythmic theta-like activity in the hippocampus, silencing of pontine noradrenergic neurons, and a profound suppression of xii nerve activity (15, 16). can i buy viagra in germany The site from which these changes are elicited most readily is analogous to that identified in cats as most effective for triggering an rem sleep¨clike state (25, 26). order viagra Thus, the model used in this study has important features similar t. viagra without a doctor prescription cheap viagra generic online  

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